Black raspberry belongs to the Rosaceae family. Homeland of this interesting plant is North America, from where it has spread throughout the world. Sometimes it is called blackberry-like raspberry, because it looks like a blackberry in appearance, although the taste is usually different. There are several varieties of black raspberry, differing mostly in taste and some external features.
What are the features of black raspberry?
Black raspberries are grown in different climatic zones. It gives medium or large yields. For this, as well as for its excellent taste and benefits, gardeners like black raspberries. Several qualities distinguish it from the red and yellow raspberries.
Black raspberry features
- The color of ripe berries is usually black, possible lilac or cherry ebb.
- This plant has no root shoots, so it can be easily placed among other shrubs or flowers, it will not stop them from growing.
- Not afraid of drought. Black raspberry can grow for a long time without watering. Therefore, it is often grown in remote areas and summer houses, where owners rarely visit.
- The taste of black raspberries is much higher than red or yellow. It is much sweeter, can have a honey taste, has more vitamin P in its composition.
- Fruiting early. The berries of the black raspberry are usually dense, do not crumble in the hands and do not crumble from the bush after re-maturing, are easily transported.
- Almost never affected by pests and diseases!
- The root system is developed, powerful.
Important! Black raspberry contains 12% of vitamin C and 10.1% of sugar. It is very sweet and in favor is not inferior to red or yellow raspberries.
With all the above advantages of black raspberries, it is worth noting that her winter hardiness is almost always low. But its flexible stems allow you to easily use the method of bending down for the winter so that the bushes do not freeze.
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Black raspberry varieties are not very many, which is partly due to its low popularity. But all varieties of this raspberry are valued by gardeners and gardeners, because they have their advantages. They are not only not inferior to the red raspberry, but even surpass it in many qualities.
Black raspberry varieties
- Cumberland - the most common black raspberry. Early, productive (up to 4 kg / bush). Bushes grow large, powerful, spreading, if they are not tied up. There are developed spikes and patina on the shoots. The berries are round, black, shining after full maturity, sweet in taste.
- "Boysenberry" - An interesting variety, bred in 1923 in the United States. Ripens from the end of July. The berries are slightly elongated, black, with a cherry tinge, weighing 2-3 g. Raspberries are collected in brushes of 5-6 pieces. The yield of the variety is not very high, but this is offset by the taste. The taste is very sweet, there is a hint of raspberry and blackberry.
- "Litch" - Polish variety bred in 2008. He has only two-year shoots, so timely pruning is needed. The shoots are powerful, tight with plenty of thorns. The berries are small, black with a gray bloom, very sweet.
- "Bristol" - high-yielding variety, giving from a bush up to 5 kg of berries. Bushes grow up to 3 meters in height, need an obligatory garter. The berries are round, black, with a bluish bloom, very sweet, with a high content of juice.
- "Turn" - an early grade of black raspberry. It has moderate resistance to diseases, pests, and frosts. Bushes grow up to 2.6 meters in height, large, spreading, thorns are medium, hard, which complicates the picking of berries. Shoots are brown, with a waxy coating. Berries reach a mass of 1.9 g, black, shiny. Productivity from a bush of 6,8 kg.
- "Airlie Cumberland" looks more like a blackberry in taste and appearance than a raspberry. Berries up to 1.6 g, ripen together 15-20 on each branch. Differs in high resistance to frosts (to-30 degrees). It hurts and is attacked by pests very rarely.
- "Luck" - black raspberry with early ripening. Bushes grow up to 2 meters, not a lot of thorns. The berries are almost round, weighing up to 2.2 g. The taste of the berries is sweet, delicate, juicy. Productivity - 3,3 kg of berries from a bush.
- "Ember" known for its high yield. 5-8 kg of berries are harvested from the bush, depending on the quality of care. Bushes grow up to 2.5 meters, need a garter. On each bush an average of 9-12 shoots, no shoots. The berries are large, black, sweet and sour. The variety is not afraid of frost, so it is often grown even in the northern regions.
How to plant black raspberries?
Black raspberries usually take on well, regardless of the variety or planting method. It is suitable for any type of soil. However, the future harvest, its quality and quantity is greatly influenced by the landing site. So where is the best place to plant this crop?
Planting Black Raspberry
- Plant black raspberries can not be next to the nightshade or blackberry. They do not get along close by, may begin to disappear or get sick. But with other types of raspberries can be planted.
- The first thing you need to pay attention - sunny plot or not. Black raspberry loves light, and in the shade almost does not develop. Therefore, the site should be sunny, but protected from drafts (for example, at the fence or some mound, a hill on the site).
- Between the bushes you need to leave 80 cm of free space, since the black raspberry grows with a large bush and it has a developed root system. Between the rows, 1.5-2 meters should be left so that you can move freely, take care of the bushes, and it will be easier for the sun to warm individual pagons.
Important! Most black raspberry varieties grow well with red and yellow raspberries, but rarely get along with blackberries.
Planting in spring or autumn is carried out only in well-fertilized land (you can use compost or humus). Pits or trenches for bushes should be up to 0.5 meters deep. Up to half of them are filled with humus mixed with earth and wood ash. Then put a bush, leveled its roots and sprinkled with earth. After planting, the earth is compacted and watered.
The reproduction of this type of raspberry usually occurs by layering. Approximately in autumn, large, flexible stems bend to the ground and placed into prepared and fertilized furrows up to 10 cm deep, and then sprinkled with earth.
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Caring for black raspberries is not difficult. It will not bring much trouble, but it is worth performing the most important procedures, otherwise the yield will be low.
Black Raspberry Care
- Land thoroughly loosens about 3 times a year. At other times, if you can not, you can not do this. However, weeds are harvested all the time, as they take away too much nutrients and moisture.
- Garter is desirable. To avoid annual difficulties, it is worth making a good trellis, to which bushes will be tied up each year.
- Pruning is important for increasing yields. You can spend it 1-2 times a year. Removed old branches and damaged, sick.
- Watering needs regular, but not frequent. The abundance of water will lead to rotting roots. Ideally, install a drip system.
- In the spring, as well as in the autumn, the land can be mulched with sawdust, manure, peat or dry grass. This will keep the water in the ground and will be additional food for the raspberry.
Important! The winter hardiness of black raspberry is lower than that of red. Therefore, for the winter it is always warmed or just make a special covering frame. To the bushes do not freeze out.
Diseases and pests of black raspberry
Sick black raspberry is not often. It is also very rarely attacked by pests. It is necessary to be afraid for the most part of only verticilous wilting, since it is not treated and requires the removal of a sore bush, until the problem is aggravated.
Diseases and pests of black raspberry
The abundance of irrigation and rain or marshy land leads to the development of various types of fungi, so that the plant is planted only on drained soil or on elevations. Of the pests should be attentive to the May beetle. It can badly spoil the bushes and even lead to their withering.
Dealing with diseases and pests is easier before they appear. In order for diseases and harmful insects to bypass the black raspberry side, about 1-2 times a year it is worthwhile to carry out preventive treatment of the bushes with complex insecticides and fungicides or to use folk methods (wood ash, herbal infusions).